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Milk Fruit Drink

The pectin is essential in this formulation as otherwise the low pH of the orange juice will cause the rehydrated milk drink to curdle.  In low pH systems HM pectin protects the casein which helps to prevent against flocculation and sedimentation.

Recipe Procedure

Make pectin solution 3%.  Dissolve skimmed milk powder in water & add pectin solution.  Mix fruit juice and sucrose and stir slowly into above mixture.  Pasteurise, homogenise and fill into containers.  Leave to cool.

Recipe Formulation

3% pectin solution13
Skimmed milk powder5
Orange juice32


Ice cream Classifications

Traditionally ice-cream was categorised as super-premium, premium, standard or economy. These ice-creams usually vary by fat content, total solids, overrun, flavours, packaging and cost (Tharp & Young 2013a, Goff 2010) as shown in the table below. As there are no legal guidelines of different ice-cream categories, this is just a guide and may differ from industry to industry.







10% (depending on legal requirements)

10% - 12%

12% - 15%

15% -18%

Total solids

30% (depending on legal requirements)

36% - 38%

38% - 40%



Legal maximum.

100% - 120%

60% - 90%

25% - 50%




Higher than average


Packaging and graphics

Basic. usually available in large quantities. The word 'economy' is rarely used and is usually identified by the price

The word 'standard' is not usually shown on the packaging. Also available in large quantities.

The word 'premium' is used on the packaging. Usually available in smaller packs than economy & standard.

Individual pots are common in this category.

Additional notes

Artificial colours and flavours are widely used and usually the flavours are standard

Typically the flavours are standard.

Uses ingredients perceived to be natural. Novel flavours and additions are very common

Uses high quality ingredients. Novel flavours and additions are very common

Premium light

A new category of ice-cream is emerging known as 'Premium Light' ice-cream (Tharp & Young 2013b).  This is an ice-cream which provides the eating quality of premium ice-cream but with lower fat. Some manufacturers market these directly as premium light ice-creams, whilst others use it just for cost savings. 

These can be made by altering the recipe or the procedure.

To alter the procedure, a refrigerated twin screw extruder attached to the ice-cream freezer is required.  As the ice-cream is passed from the freezer into the extruder, the freezing process continues. This results in lower ice-crystal sizes and the 'churned' process also results in an increase in perceived creaminess (Tharp & Young 2013b).

To alter the recipe, some of the milk fat is replaced with a fat replacer. CyberColloids has completed extensive work in this area and should you require further information on fat replacers for your low fat or premium light ice-cream please contact us.


Goff, D. (2010). Course notes from the 'International ice-cream science and technology training course' pp 2

Tharp, B.W. & Young, L.S. (2013a). Tharp & Young on ice cream: An encyclopedic guide to ice cream science and technology. USA: DEStech Publications Inc. pp 181-182.

Tharp, B.W. & Young, L.S. (2013b). Tharp & Young on ice cream: An encyclopedic guide to ice cream science and technology. USA: DEStech Publications Inc. pp 381-382.

Custard Dessert

Chefs make custard by combining milk (or cream), sugar, vanilla and egg yolk. Industrially it is made without the egg yolk (due to cost) and the yellow colour is obtained by the use of colours.  The thickener can be reduced to make it a pouring sauce (like crème anglaise) or increased to make a pastry filling like crème pâtissière.

This basic custard type recipe uses starch and carrageenan. Both the carrageenan and starch (unless pregelatinised) need heat to become fully functional. The heat required differs between different starch products, but usually starch begins to thicken at 60-70C.

Recipe Procedure

Add the dry ingredients to the milk and mix until homogeneous.  Add colouring if applicable and mix.  Pasteurise, cool and store.

Recipe Formulation

Modified starch3
Vanilla flavouringas required
Colour (beta carotene or annatto)as required


Low fat yogurt

Low fat yogurt requires the use of stabilisers to enhance the texture and creaminess of the product. The most common stabilisers used are: gelatine (100 - 250 bloom, 0.2 - 0.5%), pectin (0.05 – 0.20%), modified starch (0.5 – 2.0%), alginate (0.25 – 0.50%), agar (0.8 - 1.1%), carrageenan (0.05 – 0.20%) (Hui, 2007). Guar is also a commonly used stabiliser, however only specialised depolymerised guar is suitable for yogurt (otherwise depletion flocculation may occur).

CyberColloids has vast experience in full fat, low fat and Greek style yogurts. Should you require any help formulating an industrial low fat yogurt, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Recipe Procedure

Add the dry ingredients to the water and mix until homogeneous.  Heat to 90-95°C and hold at this temperature for 10 minutes.  Homogenise, cool to 37°C and add the culture.  Incubate 37°C X 16 hours.

Recipe Formulation

Skimmed milk powder15
Potassium sorbate0.02
Stabilisersas required
Cultureas required


Frozen Yogurt

In general, frozen yogurt contains less fat and more sugar and protein than ice-cream. Also an emulsifier is not always needed.

Due to lack of legislation for the production of frozen yogurt, there are three different ways of making it:

  1. Freezing and whipping yogurt

  2. Making an ice-cream style mix and lowering the pH with citric acid. This is then whipped and frozen.

  3. Combing yogurt and an ice-cream style mix which is then frozen and whipped. The ratio's of these 2 components vary considerably and it is up to the individual manufacturer.

CyberColloids are highly experienced in formulating frozen yogurt recipes for clients (in particular added value and cost savings). We have the option of making yogurts on a small scale (1.5L of mix) using a batch pastueriser and batch freezer (Taylor) or large scale using HTST pasteurisation and a continuous freezer.  Please contact us for further information.

Recipe Procedure

Mix the dry ingredients into the cream and water.  Pasteurise, homogenise and cool to <20°C.  Add the yogurt and stir until homogeneous followed by ageing overnight.  Stir the mix and add to the ice-cream maker.  Freeze to -7°C or until the desired viscosity is reached and adjust the overrun.  Draw samples from the freezer and package.  Harden in a blast freezer at -35°C and store at -20°C or colder.

Recipe Formulation

This is a recipe which combines yogurt with a ice-cream style mix.

Fat free yogurt40
Skimmed milk powder10


Cream cheese spread

Cream  cheese is a soft, white cheese which is mild in flavour. It is not normally matured which gives it a fresh, light taste. Its fat content is typically 30% although light versions are available which may be as low as 5% fat. Cream cheese is generally used on crackers and biscuits and also used in bakery for cheese cakes.

Recipe Procedure

Milk and cream are mixed to give the desired fat level. The mixture is pasteurised at 92°C (198 °F) for 30 seconds and homogenize at 180/20 bar. It is then cooled to 25-30°C (77-86°F). Mesophilic cultures are added and allowed to ferment to pH 4.6-4.8 at 30°C (86°F) for 12-16 hours. The curd is broken and whey removed by centrifugation or ultrafiltration. It is then heated to 60°C (140°F) under continuous stirring. Carrageenan, salt and potassium sorbate are added to the concentrated quark. This quark is then pasteurised at 80-85°C (176-185°F) under continuous stirring (e.g. in a Stephan cooker) or in a scraped surface heat exchanger. It is then homogenized (200/20 bar; 2900/290 psi) at 80°C (176°F). The product is filled hot (80°C; 176°F) and cooled rapidly to 20°C (68°F). This rapid cooling step will avoid condensation and the formation of a skin on the cream cheese surface.

Recipe Formulation

Cream (40% fat)29
Potassium sorbate0.1
Skimmed milk69.6



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