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A basic air freshener recipe. Other gums (such as CMC) are often aded to reduce syneresis

Recipe Procedure

Add all the ingredients to the water and heat with stirring to 80C. The mix is held at 80C for 30 minutes and then add the perfume, stir well to form a good emulsion and fill the containers.

HPMC is used a lot in batters, as when mixed into cold water, it increases the batter viscosity and thus leads to better adhesion to the product. Then upon frying, the HPMC gels and thus forms a barrier to reduce both oil uptake and water migration.

Bechemal Sauce is also known as white sauce and is a traditional milk based sauce in French cuisine. It is also used as a base for other sauces such as Mornay sauce and mustard sauce.

A basic cake glaze recipe using fruit juice.  This sweet fruit glaze is suitable for cakes, pastries and setting fruit into place on other confectionery.  It is important to pour while hot and not to move the product while the glaze is setting.  It is important to use a r

A basic chocolate flavour flan type dessert. A french dairy flan is a custard like product, different to English flan which is like a sponge

Recipe Procedure

Mix all ingredients. Pasteurise and homogenise. Add chocolate flavour and colour as required. A kappa type carrageenan or furcellaran is the best for this recipe.

This is a soft icing recipe with minimal flow suitable for doughnuts.  Agar is a gelatinous substance extracted from red algae which is often used in Asian desserts.

A standard half fat chocolate milk. Complete stabilisation of the cocoa particles is affected by milk, cocoa and carrageenan types.  Hydrocolloid manufacturers produce carrageenans specifically for chocolate milk (generally semirefined kappa carrageenan with specific viscosities).

Cream  cheese is a soft, white cheese which is mild in flavour. It is not normally matured which gives it a fresh, light taste. Its fat content is typically 30% although light versions are available which may be as low as 5% fat.

A cream style salad dressing. While xanthan is very pH stable, guar is not as stable at low pH, therefore it is important to fully hydrate the guar prior to acid addition. This helps retain some functionality at lower pH. Tween 60 is a very effective emulsifier but it is not acceptable in all countries.

Chefs make custard by combining milk (or cream), sugar, vanilla and egg yolk. Industrially it is made without the egg yolk (due to cost) and the yellow colour is obtained by the use of colours.  The thickener can be reduced to make it a pouring sauce (like crème anglaise) or increased to make a pastry filling like crème pâtissière.

A basic dessert jelly with carrageenan and locust bean gum.

Recipe Procedure

Mix gums with sugar and disperse into hot water. Add remaining ingredients. Stir until fully dissolved, pack off and pasteurise in the packets. Store at room temperature.

A drinking yoghurt base that can be flavoured with fruit preparation or flavouring.

Recipe Procedure

Mix the milk, water, cream, whey and sugar. Pasteurise, cool to 40C and add the cultures. Ferment to a pH of 4.5, add the fruit preparation, pack and store under refrigeration.

In general, frozen yogurt contains less fat and more sugar and protein than ice-cream. Also an emulsifier is not always needed.

Due to lack of legislation for the production of frozen yogurt, there are three different ways of making it:

  1. Freezing and whipping yogurt

A medium solids level fruit preparation for use in dairy products such as a yoghurt.  Low methoxy amidated pectin is used here because of the lower sugar levels.

Ketchup is a basic condiment product which involves adding sugar and thickeners to water and a tomato base. Vinegar is also added to give it the acidic flavour.

Frankfurters can be made from pork, chicken, turkey, pork and beef or combinations of different meats. Meat analogue frankfurters are also available commercially.

Low fat yogurt requires the use of stabilisers to enhance the texture and creaminess of the product. The most common stabilisers used are: gelatine (100 - 250 bloom, 0.2 - 0.5%), pectin (0.05 – 0.20%), modified starch (0.5 – 2.0%), alginate (0.25 – 0.50%), agar (0.8 - 1.1%), carrageenan (0.05 – 0.20%) (Hui, 2007).

A low sugar jam can reduce the sugar level in the jam from 65% to 55% with the addition of additional pectin and higher water levels.

The pectin is essential in this formulation as otherwise the low pH of the orange juice will cause the rehydrated milk drink to curdle.  In low pH systems HM pectin protects the casein which helps to prevent against flocculation and sedimentation.

A basic petfood formulation for the meat in gel type of canned petfood.

Recipe Procedure

Disperse the carrageenan, salts and LBG in the water. Add the meat, mix, can and retort.

Pimiento is a variety of chilli pepper. This type of pepper is used as a stuffing in Spanish green olives. Traditionally these red peppers were cut to size and hand stuffed into the olives.

Potato croquettes are mashed potato products which are battered and flash fried. The majority of commercial croquettes are sold frozen and cooked from frozen. Therefore an adequate stabiliser such as HPMC is needed to prevent the croquettes from bursting or leaking on cooking.

A block type processed cheese suitable for pizza toppings and other shredded or sliced applications.

Restructured onion rings are made with alginate as the calcium gelling allows for the rings to be easily formed and more resilient to handling during the battering and crumbing stage. 

A standard grade ice cream formulation with good melt down resistance and heat shock stability.  The LBG and fat are the two main ingredients which increase the melting and heat shock resistance of the ice-cream.

A standard tortenguss (German cake glaze, similar to nappage) recipe.  A fruit glace will prevent fruit drying out and can enhance the appearance of cakes on display.

Recipe Procedure

Mix all ingredients together, stir with heating until you reach a low simmer. Simmer for one minute. Add colour and flavour as required.

A 30% american style extended turkey breast.  The phosphate needs to be dissolved in water first and without any other ingredients. If it is mixed with the salt, it will not go into solution which means a non-uniform brine, and it may also block the injector.  Following cooking the carrageenan gels which enhances water binding and improves yields.

A yogurt style salad dressing.  While xanthan is very pH stable, guar is not as stable at low pH, therefore it is important to fully hydrate the guar prior to acid addition. This helps retain some functionality at lower pH. Tween 60 is a very effective emulsifier but it is not acceptable in all countries.