You are here

Hexose sugar structures and properties

All structures are shown in alpha-D-pyranose conformation

 

α-D-Alloseα-D-Altrose
 Percentage in conformation
 α-pyranoseβ-pyranoseα-furanoseβ-furanose
Allose187057
Altrose27402013
Glucose366400
Mannose673300
α-D-Glucoseα-D-Mannose

Glucose is the most common sugar type in nature. Cellulose (β-1,4- glucopyranose) and starch (α-1,4-glucopyranose) are the most common polysaccharides in nature. Glucose is also found in xanthan gum and konjac mannan.  Mannose is found as the main backbone in the galactomannans including guar, locust bean gum, cassia tora, fenugreek and tara. It is found in konjac mannan as a co-polymer with glucose and in xanthan as part of the side chain.

α-D-Guloseα-D-Idose
 Percentage in conformation
 α-pyranoseβ-pyranoseα-furanoseβ-furanose
Gulose227800
Idose31371616
Galactose277300
Talose40292011
α-D-Galactoseα-D-Talose

Gulose is a raw sugar in nature but is found in alginate as the uronic acid derivative. Galactose is found as the sidechain in the galactomannans including guar, locust bean gum, cassia tora, fenugreek and tara. It is also the basis of the main sugars in the carrageenans and agars as sulphated and methylated sugars. It is present in the uronic acid form as the main backbone sugar in pectin and is found in gum arabic and larch gum.